Parkinson’s disease - Its pathophysiology to etiology
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CitationKılıç, Ş., Aslan, A. S. ve Helvacı Yılmaz, N. (2022). Parkinson’s disease - Its pathophysiology to etiology. The Handbook of Neuromodulation (2 Volume Set): Volme 1 içinde (47-62. ss.). Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
The symptoms of Parkinson’s disease are well-known, but there are still little known about pathophysiology to etiology. Alpha-synuclein and Lewy body accumulation in neurons of substansia nigra, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, neuro-inflammation caused by microglia, glutamate excitotoxicity and gut microbiota are the possible pathogenetic factors. The motor symptoms, dopamine depletion due to alpha-synuclein neurotoxicity leads to bradykinesia and rigidity while dysfunction of the cerebellumthalamo- cortical circuit is the underlying mechanism for tremor. Age, pesticides, head trauma, malignant melanoma are the major environmental risk factors while smoking, caffeine, Mediterranean diet and exercise are the main protective factors. By avoiding the risk factors and providing disease-modifying therapies, Parkinson’s Disease may become a curable disease.