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dc.contributor.authorKoçak, Orhan
dc.contributor.authorKoçak, Ömer Erdem
dc.contributor.authorYounis, Mustafa Zeedan
dc.date.accessioned2021-02-26T07:43:57Z
dc.date.available2021-02-26T07:43:57Z
dc.date.issued2021en_US
dc.identifier.citationKoçak, O., Koçak, Ö. E. ve Younis, M. Z. (2021). The psychological consequences of COVID-19 fear and the moderator effects of individuals’ underlying illness and witnessing infected friends and family. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(4), 1-15. https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041836en_US
dc.identifier.issn1661-7827
dc.identifier.issn1660-4601
dc.identifier.urihttps://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041836
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12511/6584
dc.description.abstractThe COVID-19 virus has become a fearful epidemic for people all over the world. In Turkey, long quarantine periods and curfews have increased both physical and psychological problems. Due to the rapid spread and substantial impact of the COVID-19 virus, different psychological effects were observed among different segments of society, such as among young people, elderly people, and active workers. Because of fear caused by the COVID-19 virus, it is thought that depression, stress, and anxiety levels have increased. It is estimated that there are more psychological issues for people with poor health and others whose friends or family became ill or have died because of COVID-19. To explore and test the situation mentioned above, we conducted a cross-sectional study in Turkey with 3287 participants above 16 years old. We measured COVID-19 fear, along with anxiety, stress, and depression levels (DASS21) and demographics. Firstly, we tested whether COVID-19 fear predicts stress, anxiety, and depression. Secondly, we investigated if the effect of COVID-19 fear is stronger for those who have underlying illness and for those whose friends or family became ill or have died because of COVID-19. The results showed that women and 16–25 years old youths have higher COVID-19-related fear, anxiety, depression, and stress. Furthermore, we found a significant relationship between COVID-19 fear and stress, anxiety, and depression, as well as significant moderation effects of having an underlying illness and having friends or family who were infected or have died. These results show the importance of implementing specific implementations, particularly for vulnerable groups, to minimize the psychological problems that may arise with the pandemic.en_US
dc.language.isoengen_US
dc.publisherMDPI AGen_US
dc.rightsinfo:eu-repo/semantics/openAccessen_US
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 International*
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/*
dc.subjectAnxietyen_US
dc.subjectCOVID-19en_US
dc.subjectDepressionen_US
dc.subjectFearen_US
dc.subjectPandemicen_US
dc.subjectStressen_US
dc.titleThe psychological consequences of COVID-19 fear and the moderator effects of individuals’ underlying illness and witnessing infected friends and familyen_US
dc.typearticleen_US
dc.relation.journalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Healthen_US
dc.departmentİstanbul Medipol Üniversitesi, İşletme ve Yönetim Bilimleri Fakültesi, İşletme Bölümüen_US
dc.authorid0000-0002-4649-2042en_US
dc.identifier.volume18en_US
dc.identifier.issue4en_US
dc.identifier.startpage1en_US
dc.identifier.endpage15en_US
dc.relation.publicationcategoryMakale - Uluslararası Hakemli Dergi - Kurum Öğretim Elemanıen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/ijerph18041836en_US


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