Olfactory dysfunction and cognition in radiologically isolated syndrome and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis
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CitationArıcı Düz, Ö., Saatçi, Ö., Karakulak, E. Z., Birday, E. ve Hanoǧlu, L. (2021). Olfactory dysfunction and cognition in radiologically isolated syndrome and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. European Neurology, 84(3), 175-182. https://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000514433
BACKGROUND: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a neuroinflammatory, neurodegenerative, demyelinating disease that causes cognitive, olfactory, and other neurological dysfunctions. Radiologically Isolated Syndrome (RIS), in which only radiological findings are monitored, is accepted as the preclinical stage of demyelinating disease and is considered an important period for disease pathology. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to evaluate the olfactory and cognitive functions and their clinical correlation in RIS and Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS) patients and a healthy control group. METHODS: Our study included 10 RRMS patients, 10 RIS patients, and 10 healthy controls. We conducted an olfactor evaluation via the "Sniffin' Sticks" test. The subjects underwent a neuropsychometric test battery to evaluate cognitive functions, including memory, visuospatial, and executive functions. Depression was evaluated using the Beck depression scale. Fatigue and daily life activity were evaluated using the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) and the 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36), respectively. Disability assessment was done with the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). RESULTS: RRMS and RIS patients' olfactory test scores were significantly different from those in the control group (p < 0.05). There was a significant difference between the odor threshold scores of patients in the RRMS and RIS groups. There was a significant correlation between memory-oriented cognitive tests and olfactory tests in the RRMS and RIS groups. CONCLUSION: Olfactory dysfunction can be seen in RIS patients, like in RRMS patients. Cognitive and olfactory dysfunction may be together a sign of degeneration in demyelinating diseases.