The impact of western physicians on the modernization of Turkish surgery and medicine, 1827-1936
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CitationBilsel, Y., Bektaş, H. ve Tilki, M. (2010). The impact of western physicians on the modernization of Turkish surgery and medicine, 1827-1936. World Journal of Surgery, 34(9), 2240-2246. https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-010-0584-3
Efforts of modernizing the Ottoman Empire and society started during the 19th century. Initially reforms have been limited by institutions such as the armed forces, faculty of engineering and medicine. For this reason, a large number of western physicians invited to state to take prestigious positions in its few existing medical schools and other state establishments, in particular help with reforming its higher education. After the establishment of young Turkish Republic, western forms of science, medicine, art and literature penetrated the culture and continued to flourish. This article brings to light the efforts of these surgeons, and physicians and tells about their contributions to surgery and medicine in Turkey.