Fabrication of vacuum-sealed capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers with through-glass-via interconnects using anodic bonding
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CitationZhang, X., Yamaner, F. Y. ve Oralkan, Ö. (2017). Fabrication of vacuum-sealed capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers with through-glass-via interconnects using anodic bonding. Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 26(1), 226-234. https://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JMEMS.2016.2630851
This paper presents a novel fabrication method for vacuum-sealed capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) arrays that are amenable to 3D integration. This paper demonstrates that MEMS structures can be directly built on a glass substrate with preformed through-glass-via (TGV) interconnects. The key feature of this new approach is the combination of copper through-glass interconnects with a vibrating silicon-plate structure suspended over a vacuum-sealed cavity by using anodic bonding. This method simplifies the overall fabrication process for CMUTs with through-wafer interconnects by eliminating the need for an insulating lining for vias or isolation trenches that are often employed for implementing through-wafer interconnects in silicon. Anodic bonding is a low-temperature bonding technique that tolerates high surface roughness. Fabrication of CMUTs on a glass substrate and use of copper-filled vias as interconnects reduce the parasitic interconnect capacitance and resistance, and improve device performance and reliability. A 16x16-element 2D CMUT array has been successfully fabricated. The fabricated device performs as the finite-element and equivalent circuit models predict. A TGV interconnect shows a 2-Omega parasitic resistance and a 20-fF shunt parasitic capacitance for 250-mu m via pitch. A critical achievement presented in this paper is the sealing of the CMUT cavities in vacuum using a PECVD silicon nitride layer. By mechanically isolating the via structure from the active cells, vacuum sealing can be ensured even when hermetic sealing of the via is compromised. Vacuum sealing is confirmed by measuring the deflection of the edge-clamped thin plate of a CMUT cell under atmospheric pressure. The resonance frequency of an 8-cell 2D array element with 78-mu m diameter circular cells and a 1.5-mu m plate thickness is measured as 3.32 MHz at 15-V dc voltage (80% Vpull-in).