Inflammatory cytokines are in action: Brain plasticity and recovery after brain ischemia due to delayed melatonin administration
Altuğ Tasa, Burcugül
Çağlayan, Ahmet Burak
Beker, Mustafa Çağlar
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CitationKılıç, Ü., Elibol, B., Beker, M., Altuğ Tasa, B., Çağlayan, A. B., Beker, M. Ç. ... Kılıç, E. (2021). Inflammatory cytokines are in action: Brain plasticity and recovery after brain ischemia due to delayed melatonin administration. Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, 30(12). https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.106105
Objectives: Post-ischemic inflammation leads to apoptosis as an indirect cause of functional disabilities after the stroke. Melatonin may be a good candidate for the stroke recovery because of its anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, we investigated the effect of melatonin on inflammation in the functional recovery of brain by evaluating ipsilesional and contralesional alterations. Materials and Methods: Melatonin (4 mg/kg/day) was intraperitoneally administered into the mice from the 3rd to the 55th day of the post-ischemia after 30 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion. Results: Melatonin produced a functional recovery by reducing the emigration of the circulatory leukocytes and the local microglial activation within the ischemic brain. Overall, the expression of the inflammation-related genes reduced upon melatonin treatment in the ischemic hemisphere. On the other hand, the expression level of the inflammatory cytokine genes raised in the contralateral hemisphere at the 55th day of the post-ischemia. Furthermore, melatonin triggers an increase in the iNOS expression and a decrease in the nNOS expression in the ipsilateral hemisphere at the earlier times in the post-ischemic recovery. At the 55th day of the post-ischemic recovery, melatonin administration enhanced the eNOS and nNOS protein expressions. Conclusions: The present molecular, biological, and histological data have revealed broad anti-inflammatory effects of melatonin in both hemispheres with distinct temporal and spatial patterns at different phases of post-stroke recovery. These outcomes also established that melatonin act recruitment of contralesional rather than of ipsilesional.
SourceJournal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases