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dc.contributor.authorÖzdemir, Vural
dc.contributor.authorArğa, Kazım Yalçın
dc.contributor.authorAziz, Ramy Karam
dc.contributor.authorBayram, Mustafa
dc.contributor.authorConley, Shannon Nicole
dc.contributor.authorDandara, Collet
dc.contributor.authorEndrényi, László
dc.contributor.authorFisher, Erik
dc.contributor.authorGarvey, Colin K.
dc.contributor.authorHekim, Nezih
dc.contributor.authorKunej, Tanja
dc.contributor.authorŞardaş, Şemra
dc.contributor.authorVon Schomberg, René
dc.contributor.authorYassin, Aymen S.
dc.contributor.authorYılmaz, Gürçim
dc.contributor.authorWang, Wei
dc.date.accessioned2020-04-17T09:16:05Z
dc.date.available2020-04-17T09:16:05Z
dc.date.issued2020en_US
dc.identifier.citationÖzdemir, V., Arğa, K. Y., Aziz, R. K., Bayram, M., Conley, S. N., Dandara, C. ... Wang, W. (2020). Digging deeper into precision/personalized medicine: cracking the sugar code, the third alphabet of life, and sociomateriality of the cell. OMICS A Journal of Integrative Biology, 24(2), 62-80. https://dx.doi.org/10.1089/omi.2019.0220en_US
dc.identifier.issn1536-2310
dc.identifier.issn1557-8100
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12511/5147
dc.identifier.urihttps://dx.doi.org/10.1089/omi.2019.0220
dc.description.abstractPrecision/personalized medicine is a hot topic in health care. Often presented with the motto "the right drug, for the right patient, at the right dose, and the right time," precision medicine is a theory for rational therapeutics as well as practice to individualize health interventions (e.g., drugs, food, vaccines, medical devices, and exercise programs) using biomarkers. Yet, an alien visitor to planet Earth reading the contemporary textbooks on diagnostics might think precision medicine requires only two biomolecules omnipresent in the literature: nucleic acids (e.g., DNA) and proteins, known as the first and second alphabet of biology, respectively. However, the precision/personalized medicine community has tended to underappreciate the third alphabet of life, the "sugar code" (i.e., the information stored in glycans, glycoproteins, and glycolipids). This article brings together experts in precision/personalized medicine science, pharmacoglycomics, emerging technology governance, cultural studies, contemporary art, and responsible innovation to critically comment on the sociomateriality of the three alphabets of life together. First, the current transformation of targeted therapies with personalized glycomedicine and glycan biomarkers is examined. Next, we discuss the reasons as to why unraveling of the sugar code might have lagged behind the DNA and protein codes. While social scientists have historically noted the importance of constructivism (e.g., how people interpret technology and build their values, hopes, and expectations into emerging technologies), life scientists relied on the material properties of technologies in explaining why some innovations emerge rapidly and are more popular than others. The concept of sociomateriality integrates these two explanations by highlighting the inherent entanglement of the social and the material contributions to knowledge and what is presented to us as reality from everyday laboratory life. Hence, we present a hypothesis based on a sociomaterial conceptual lens: because materiality and synthesis of glycans are not directly driven by a template, and thus more complex and open ended than sequencing of a finite length genome, social construction of expectations from unraveling of the sugar code versus the DNA code might have evolved differently, as being future-uncertain versus future-proof, respectively, thus potentially explaining the "sugar lag" in precision/personalized medicine diagnostics over the past decades. We conclude by introducing systems scientists, physicians, and biotechnology industry to the concept, practice, and value of responsible innovation, while glycomedicine and other emerging biomarker technologies (e.g., metagenomics and pharmacomicrobiomics) transition to applications in health care, ecology, pharmaceutical/diagnostic industries, agriculture, food, and bioengineering, among others.en_US
dc.language.isoengen_US
dc.publisherMary Ann Liebert, Inc.en_US
dc.rightsinfo:eu-repo/semantics/openAccessen_US
dc.subjectCellular Communicationen_US
dc.subjectContemporary Arten_US
dc.subjectEmerging Technology Governanceen_US
dc.subjectGlycansen_US
dc.subjectHistory Of Scienceen_US
dc.subjectPersonalized Medicineen_US
dc.subjectPharmacoglycomicsen_US
dc.subjectResponsible Innovationen_US
dc.subjectSociomaterialityen_US
dc.subjectSugar Codeen_US
dc.titleDigging deeper into precision/personalized medicine: cracking the sugar code, the third alphabet of life, and sociomateriality of the cellen_US
dc.typereviewen_US
dc.relation.journalOMICS A Journal of Integrative Biologyen_US
dc.departmentİstanbul Medipol Üniversitesi, Tıp Fakültesi, Temel Tıp Bilimleri Bölümü, Tıbbi Biyokimya Ana Bilim Dalıen_US
dc.identifier.volume24en_US
dc.identifier.issue2en_US
dc.identifier.startpage62en_US
dc.identifier.endpage80en_US
dc.relation.publicationcategoryDiğeren_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1089/omi.2019.0220en_US


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