The gender differentiation affects the nutritional status and biochemical characteristics during Ramadan fasting
KünyePak, M. ve Büyükuslu, N. (2019). The gender differentiation affects the nutritional status and biochemical characteristics during Ramadan fasting. Kuwait Medical Journal, 51(2), 172-180.
Objectives: Muslims consume two meals during Ramadan, one each at dawn and sunset. The changing daily rhythm affects metabolism. We examined the response of metabolism to fasting considering the gender differentiation. Design: Cross-sectional Setting: Istanbul Medipol University, Turkey Subjects: Thirty healthy fasting individuals Intervention: None Main outcome measures: The demographic, anthropometric and nutritional data were taken using a survey. Biochemical parameters were analyzed. Blood pressures were measured. Results: Ramadan fasting increased weight, body mass index (BMI) (p <0.05), fat (%) and muscle mass of women while it decreased weight, BMI and fat (p <0.05) in men. The waist circumference/hip circumference ratio decreased in men but stayed the same in women. The energy intake of men increased in the middle and decreased (p >0.05) at the end of Ramadan, however the opposite trend was observed in women (p >0.05). Daily water consumption increased for both women (p >0.05) and men (p <0.05). The difference in consumption of proteins in women and of proteins, saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids in men were significant. The serum levels of HbA1c decreased in both genders (p >0.05). The levels of serum creatinine, uric acid, albumin, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein altered significantly in women, while the only significance was observed in serum glucose level of men. Systolic and diastolic pressures increased in both genders (p <0.05). Conclusions: Ramadan fasting affects the nutritional status and serum parameters in a different way for women and men.